In 1575 Rudolf II. Habsburg gets on the Czech throne. At first he lived in Vienna and in 1583 moved the imperial court in Prague. Consequently, the Prague Castle and the city are modernized to treat the members of court and ambassadors, mainly from France, Spain, Venice and the Vatican.
The main interests of Rudolf II. include collecting and especially magic. Prague Castle is so full of significant art , magicians and alchemists, who in many cases only exploit the emperor’s favor. What was originally just a hobby later became the mania and Emperor Rudolf II., who has syphilis since 1597, starts listening to the servants, artists and alchemists, instead of giving the advice of his faithful.
The local gentry are becoming increasingly important and in 1609 they compel Emperor Rudolf II. to recognize the freedom of religion (Rudolph Majesty), and later, in 1611, abandoning the throne.
Rudolf II. Habsburg died in 1612 at the Prague Castle and is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral.